Fembryo Fertility & Gynaecology Clinic


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome and Endocrine Abnormalities.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome And Endocrine Abnormalities

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a problem with hormones that can happen during a woman’s reproductive years.

It is usually marked by a group of symptoms, such as missing, long, or unpredictable periods, increased androgens (male hormones) (acne, more hair where it shouldn’t be), weight gain around the waist, insulin resistance, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and even type 2 diabetes.

With PCOS, a lot of small fluid-filled sacs form along the edge of the ovary. Cysts are the name for these (but should rather be called antral follicles). The small fluid-filled cysts contain immature eggs. These are called follicles. The follicles fail to stimulate and release eggs regularly, causing menstrual problems.

No one knows for sure what causes PCOS.

Early diagnosis, treatment, and weight loss may reduce the chance of long-term problems like type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Signs and Symptoms

Common signs and symptoms of PCOS include:

PCOS symptoms often start around the first time a woman gets her period. Sometimes, symptoms don’t show up until a while after you’ve been having periods.

The symptoms of PCOS vary. A diagnosis of PCOS is made when you have at least two of these:

Irregular periods.

PCOS is often seen in women who don’t get their periods regularly or don’t get them very often. So is having a period that lasts a lot longer or for more days than a period usually does. For instance, you might not have nine periods a year. And these periods may not come every 35 days. You may have trouble getting pregnant.

High androgen levels.

High levels of male hormones called androgens can cause more hair on the face and body. The name for this is hirsutism. Sometimes, you can also get very bad acne and male-pattern baldness.

Ovaries with many cysts.

Your ovaries might be bigger. Around the edge of the ovary, many follicles with immature eggs can grow.

Most of the time, the signs and symptoms of PCOS are worse in people who are overweight.

PCOS Diagnosis

When to see a doctor

See your doctor if you have signs and symptoms that might point to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

See your doctor if you are worried about your periods, if you are having trouble getting pregnant, or if you have signs of having too much androgenic hormones or testosterone in your body. Some of these are getting new hair on your face and body, acne, and male-pattern baldness.

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome Causes

No one knows exactly what causes PCOS. Factors that might play a role include:

Insulin resistance.

The pancreas makes the hormone insulin. It lets cells use sugar, which is the main source of energy for your body. If cells stop responding to insulin, sugar levels in the blood can go up. This can make your body make more insulin to try to lower the level of sugar in your blood. Dark, velvety patches of skin on the lower part of the neck, armpits, groin, or under the breasts can be a sign of insulin resistance. A bigger appetite and gaining weight could also be signs.


Some genes may be linked to PCOS, according to research. Having PCOS in your family may make you more likely to get it.

Excess androgen.

When a person has PCOS, the ovaries may make a lot of the hormone androgen. Too much androgen can stop a woman from ovulating. This means that eggs don’t form on a regular basis and aren’t released from the follicles where they grow. Too much androgen can also cause hirsutism and acne.


You could have trouble with ovulation, the process by which eggs are released from the ovary. You could have trouble with ovulation, the process by which eggs are released from the ovary.

PCOS Diagnosis and Management

PCOS is often accompanied by obesity, which can make problems with the disorder worse.

Diagnosis may involve a full medical examination, and ultrasound as well as some blood tests.

Management of PCOS usually involves a selection of supplements and hormones which will be selected based on the individual’s history and results.

PCOS Complications

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome can cause complications such as:

  • Infertility
  • Gestational diabetes or high blood pressure caused by pregnancy
  • Miscarriage or giving birth too soon
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a severe liver inflammation caused by fat buildup in the liver.
  • Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions, such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and unhealthy cholesterol or triglyceride levels, that greatly increase your risk of heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease.
  • Diabetes type 2 or pre-diabetes
  • Sleep apnea
  • Depression, feeling anxious, and disordered eating habits
  • Cancer of the lining of the uterus (endometrial cancer)